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APUSH chapter 39-41 terms

Richard Nixon
Elected to the Presidency, and promised peace with honor in Vietnam which means withdrawing American soldiers from South Vietnam. Part of the Watergate Scandal.

Spiro Agnew
Nixon’s vice-president, resigned and pleaded “no contest” to charges of tax evasion on payments made to him when he was governor of Maryland.

Daniel Ellsberg
Former Pentagon official who leaked the Pentagon Papers

Henry Kissinger
Secretary of State appointed by Nixon as his national Secretary Advisor, and engaged shuttle diplomacy.

Warren Burger
the Supreme Court justice chosen by Nixon because he had a strict interpretation of the Constitution. He ruled on the controversal case of abortion in Roe vs. Wade.

George McGovern
This anti-war South Dakota Senator lost a landslide election to Nixon in 1972, and planned to pull troops.

Sam Ervin
A North Carolina senator who conducted the Watergate hearings.

John Dean
White House lawyer whose charges against Nixon were confirmed by the Watergate tapes

Rachel Carson
United States biologist who was famous for her opposition to the use of harmful pesticides in wildlife (1907-1964)

Gerald Ford
Nixon’s vice president after Agnew resigned, the only president never to be elected. He took office after Nixon resigned and pardoned Nixon for all federal crimes that he “committed or may have committed.”

Jimmy Carter
The President after Ford, during a U.S. energy crisis and the hostages in Iran, he helped to sign a treaty between Egypt and Israel.

Shah of Iran
Leader of Iran supported by the United States who wanted to nationalize their oil and improve economy, sparks Iranian Revolution and Shah is overthrown (1979)

Ayatollah Khomeini
Iranian religious leader of the Shiites

Leonid Brezhnev
Soviet leader who supported intervention if communism was threatened

detente
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China

impoundment
presidential refusal to allow an agency to spend funds that Congress authorized and appropriated

revenue sharing
Giving money back to the state and local government with no strings attached

executive privilege
The power to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to national security.

Twenty-sixth Amendment
amendment that changed the legal voting age from 21 to 18

Environmental Protection Agency
an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment

Pentagon Papers
secret government documents published In 1971; revealed that the u.s. government had misled Americans about the Vietnam war.

ABM treaty
most important Detente treaty in which the US and the Soviet Union agreed to limit antiballistic missiles

SALT
negotiations between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics opened in 1969 in Helsinki designed to limit both countries’ stock of nuclear weapons

MIRVs
Multiple Independently Targeted Reentry Vehicles where several nuclear weapons were mounted on a single missile.

Southern Strategy
tactic of the Republican Party for winning presidential elections by securing the electoral votes of southern states

Watergate Scandal
Result of break-in committed by Nixon’s administration; goal was to cover attempted burglary, and led to Nixon’s resignation

CREEP
Richard Nixon’s committee for re-electing the president. Found to have been engaged in a “dirty tricks” campaign against the democrats in 1972. They raised tens of millions of dollars in campaign funds using unethical means. They were involved in the infamous Watergate cover-up.

enemies list
informal name of what started as a list of President of the United States Richard Nixon’s political opponents

Saturday Night Massacre
A night in which many of Nixon’s top ranking officials resigned or were fired because of the Watergate Scandal

War Powers Act
Act that grants emergency executive powers to president to run war effort

Title IX
federal legislation that prohibited discrimination in education whether in academics or athletics

Equal Rights Amendment
Constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender

Bakke case
In medical school students cannot be admitted by quota but race can be considered for admission. Important reverse discrimination

Wounded Knee
Place in South Dakota where 200 unarmed Native Americans were killed in 1890

SALT II
the second treaty between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics resulting from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks

Energy Crisis
Many Arab countries created embargo against U..S. for support of Isreal in Yom Kippur War, then the Iran Revolution caused U.S. to not have enough oil supplies for energy

Helsinki Accords
Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by the Soviet Union and western European countries.

OPEC
an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum

Iranian Hostage Crisis
1979 kidnapping of American Embassy hostages in Iran that lasted for over a year.

Ronald Reagan
40th president from 1981-1989. He was involved in the tearing down of the Berlin Wall and Ending the Cold War after spending millions of dollars on arms, and the Iran-Contra Affair.

Margaret Thatcher
conservative prime minister (first woman) of Britain. Involved in tax cuts for the rich, which was controversial.

Mikhail Gorbachev
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)

Saddam Hussein
Iraqi leader who waged war against Iran; his invasion of Kuwait led to the Gulf War

Jerry Falwell
Led Moral Majority to restore Christian values to society

Sandra Day O’Connor
first woman supreme court justice. appointed by Reagan

George H. W. Bush
President after Reagan, President when Cold War ended and when Sadam Hussein invaded Kuwait, sent troops to Iran which started the Persian Gulf war

Boris Yeltsin
President of the Russian Republic in 1991. Helped end the USSR and force Gorbachev to resign.

Nelson Mandela
South African statesman who was released from prison to become the nation’s first democratically elected president in 1994 (born in 1918)

Manuel Noriega
leader of Panama, tried on drug trafficking racketeering and money laundering.

Norman Schwartzkopf
Successful commander of American forces in the First Persian Gulf War

Clarence Thomas
African American Associate Supreme Court Justice; appointed by Bush, Sr.; controversal confirmation hearings chaired by Joe Biden

William Jefferson Clinton
Democratic president (1993-2001) whose two-term presidency saw economic growth.

H. Ross Perot
billionaire who ran in the 1992 election agaisnt Clinton and Bush as an independent. Wanted to end deficit spending.

Hillary Rodham Clinton
first lady of bill clinton, senator for new york, closest a woman has come to presidential candidate

Newt Gringrich
Became Speaker of the House of Represenatives following the 1994 elections – conservative Republican

Robert Dole
1996 Republican presidential nominee who was soundly defeated by Bill Clinton

John McCain
Republican Candidate. Was a prisoner of war in Vietnam.

Sarah Palin
governor of Alaska who was the first female to ever be nominated for VP as a Republican

Monica Lewinsky
White House intern whose affair with Bill Clinton led to his impeachment.

George Walker Bush
Son of a former president who narrowly defeated Albert Gore in the disputed 2000 presidential election. Led during the War on Terror and the 9/11 attack.

Richard Cheney
The Vice President and President of the Senate as of January 19, 2009, Secretary of Defense under George Bush. Oversaw Operation Desert Storm.

John Kerry
decorated Vietnam War veteran who lost the 2004 presidential election

Nancy Pelosi
became the first female Speaker of the House following the 2006 elections

Barack Obama
Illinois Senator who won the presidency in 2008, first African-American President, advocate for universal healthcare, an end to the Iraqi War, and economic recovery.

Joseph Biden
Current Vice President of the United States

“supply-side” economics
a type of economics that says tax cuts can help an economy by raising supply

Perestroika
Economic restructuring by Gorbachev

Glasnost
a policy of the Soviet government allowing freer discussion of social problems

new religious right
a response to the liberalism of the 1960’s, against affirmative action, abortion, and feminism.

right to life/pro-choice
The belief that a woman has the moral and legal right to choose freely to abort her pregnancy

“family values”
Conservative phrase supporting the two-parent family. The implication is that all other family arrangements are the source of social problems.

“ethnic cleansing”
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region

Moral Majority
“Born-Again” Christians become politically active. The majority of Americans are moral people, and therefore are a political force.

Proposition 13
A referendum on the state ballot that greatly reduced property taxes

Reganomics
Massive federal budget cuts, welfare reduced, personal and corporate taxes reduced, and a tax plan that was characterized as “trickle-down” economics

Sandinistas
Revolutionaries that overthrew the Nicaraguan government in 1979

Iran-Contra Affair
A scandal including arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the contras in nicaragua even though congress was against it.

Contras
counterrevolutionary group in Nicaragua that opposed the Sandinistas

Solidarity
Trade union movement in Poland that developed into a political pressure group that supported reforms from the Communist leadership.

Grenada Invasion
The first US military operation of the Vietnam War

Yuppies
Financially secure upper-middle class of the 1980s (usually in their 20s or 30s). “Young Urban Professional”

Strategic Defense Initiative
Reagan’s Star Wars defense system to shoot down missiles while they’re in space

Roe v. Wade
(1973) legalized abortion on the basis of a woman’s right to privacy

Persian Gulf War
a war fought between a coalition led by the United States and Iraq to free Kuwait from Iraqi invaders

Americans with Disabilities Act
bans discrimination against people with physical or mental disability

27th Amendment
limits the power of congress to increase its own salaries

Contract with America
Republican plan headed by Newt Gingrich that focused on scaling back the government, balancing the budget, and cutting taxes

Oklahoma City Bombing
A bombing of a federal building in Oklahoma City by militia-movement extremists.

USA Patriot Act
Act that gives federal officials more authority to take measures to combat terrorism.

No Child Left Behind
In 2001, Bush, modeled national education after a program in Florida, this included accountability through testing.

NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada

World Trade Organization
an international organization based in Geneva that monitors and enforces rules governing global trade

Columbine High School
A number of students and a teacher were murdered; there was increased security at schools; awareness of dangers at school.

Whitewater Land Corporation
A failed real estate investment by Clinton.

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