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APUSH Chapter 40

Proposition 13
Limits the amount of taxes to a maximum of 1% of the March 1, 1975, market value of the property plus the cumulative increase of 2% in market value each year thereafter

Boll weevils
The nickname for the southern conservative Democrats whose sympathy helped President Reagan’s 1981 economic measures pass through Congress with overwhelming majorities

Supply-side economics
An economic theory, advocated by President Reagan, holding that too much income goes to taxes and too little money is available for purchasing and that the solution is to cut taxes and return purchasing power to consumers

Reaganomics
The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth.

Strategic Defense Initiative
Became known as Star Wars and would be able to shoot missiles down from space. Critics claimed it could never be perfected

Sandinistas
Members of a leftist coalition that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted to install a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by the Contras. They lost national elections in 1990

Contras
counterrevolutionary group in Nicaragua that opposed the Sandinistas

glasnot
“openness”, aimed to open Soviet society by introducing free speech and some political liberty, ending party censorship. This is a huge break with the past and very successful.

perestroika
A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to revitalize the Soviet economy by opening it up to more free enterprise

Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty
Ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with ranges of between 500 and 5,500 kilometers. Had to be destroyed by USSR and US after making a treaty for it

Iran-Contra affair
2nd term of Reagan- government officials sold missiles to Iran (hoping to free hostages in Lebanon), money from the sale was used to aid the anti-communist Contra forces in Nicaragua. Big scandal for Reagan

Moral Majority
A movement begun in the early 1980’s among religious conservatives that supported primarily conservative Republicans opposed to abortion, communism and liberalism.

Black Monday
Saw the largest one-day decline in the history of the New York Stock Exchange

Commonwealth of Independent States
Confederacy of independent states of the former Soviet Union that have united because of their common economic and administrative needs

Operation Desert Storm
Military operations that started on January 16, 1991, with a bombing campaign, followed by a ground invasion of February 23 and 24, 1991. The ground war lasted 100 hours and resulted in a spectacularly one-sided military victory for the Coalition

Americans with Disabilities Act
Passed by Congress in 1991, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commercial buildings

Ronald Reagan
1981-1989,”Great Communicator” Republican, conservative economic policies, replaced liberal Democrats in upper house with conservative Democrats or “boll weevils”

Margaret Thatcher
1st woman Prime Minister 1979-1990; strongly opposed Soviet communism known as “Iron Lady”; sent troops to prevent Falkland Islands from falling to dictatorship of Argentina

Mikhail Gorbachev
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe

Saddam Hussein
President of Iraq from 1979 to 2003. Waged war on Iran in 1980-1988. In 1990 he ordered an invasion of Kuwait but was defeated by United States and its allies in the Gulf War (1991). Defeated by US led invasion in 2003

Jerry Falwell
Leader of the Religious Right Fundamentalist Christians, a group that supported Reagan; rallying cry was “family values”, anti-abortion, favored prayer in schools.

Sandra Day O’Connor
First woman supreme court justice appointed by President Ronald Reagan

George H.W. Bush
Focused hugely on foreign affairs, Ambassador to the UN, Chairman of Republican National Committee, Did not focus enough on domestic affairs, Senior Admin. sold arms to Iran

Boris Yeltsin
First leader of the Russian Republic. His pro-democracy reaction when Gorbachev’s push for reform was held off by the Communist establishment was a rallying point for Russian democratic supporters.

Nelson Mandela
South African statesman who was released from prison to become the nation’s first democratically elected president in 1994

Manuel Noriega
Panama leader who was overthrown in a 1989 US invasion; Tried and imprisoned for drug trafficking.

Norman Schwarzkopf
American general during the Gulf War, known as “Stormin’ Norman”; led Operation Desert Storm, part of his strategy to follow continuous bombing with a ground strike.

Clarence Thomas
A conservative federal judge who was accused of sexually harassing Anita Hill
2nd Black Justice to serve in supreme court

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