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APUSH spring terms unit 10

New Federalism
the transfer of certain powers from the United States Government back to the states; name of President Ronald Reagan’s economic program

Helsinki Accords
signed by the US, Canada, and many of the European states in an attempt to improve relations between the Soviet bloc and the West

War Powers Act
a law intended to check the President’s power to commit the United States to an armed conflict (such as the Vietnam War) without the consent of Congress

Iran
The United States supported this country’s deposed shah, and its inhabitants retaliated by taking American hostages

USSR
A communist republic originally led by Josef Stalin; improved relations with the US came with Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev

Three Mile Island
the setting of a partial nuclear meltdown in Pennsylvania; the worst accident in US commercial power plant history

Sandinistas
a revolutionary government in Nicaragua that allied themselves with the USSR and Cuba

Beirut
a Multinational force was sent here in 1982 to oversee the withdrawal of the Palestine Liberation Organization; in 1983 two truck bombs killed 299 French and American servicemen

Afghanistan
invaded by the Soviets in 1979 and occupied for 10 years; the invasion caused President Carter to withdraw the Salt II Treaty

Iraq
a country who led by Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, and the US retaliated with Operation Desert Storm which basically consisted of massive air strikes against Iraqi targets

Strategic Defense Initiative
proposed by Ronald Reagan to use ground and space based systems to protect the US from nuclear missiles

Tiananmen Square
the setting of student-led popular demonstrations in Beijing that led to troops invading the square with assault rifles and tanks that inflicted thousands of casualties (also known as the June 4th massacre)

Henry Kissinger
served as secretary of state under Presidents Nixon and Ford; pioneered the policy of detente with the Soviet Union; opened relations with the People’s Republic of China; negotiated the Paris Peace Accords which ended the Vietnam War; received the Nobel Peace Prize

Warren Burger
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1969-1986; ruled against Nixon in his attempt to withhold tapes during the Watergate Scandal; also determined the legality of abortion in Roe v. Wade

Neil Armstrong
an American astronaut and the first person to walk on the moon

Daniel Ellsberg
released the Pentagon Papers to the New York Times in 1971; a study of top-secret government documents about information withheld from the American people during the Vietnam War

John Sirica
presided over the trial of the Watergate burglars; ordered President Nixon to turn over his recordings of White House conversations

Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein
two journalists that uncovered a system of political “dirty tricks” and crimes that eventually led to indictments of forty White House and administration officials, and ultimately to the resignation of President Richard Nixon (The Watergate Scandal)

Archibald Cox
the first special prosecutor for the Watergate Scandal; indirectly fired by Nixon for demanding that he release his recordings of the conversations in the Oval office

Charles Colson
Special counsel to President Nixon; one of the “Watergate Seven”, those who pled guilty to obstruction of justice for defame Daniel Ellsberg

Richard Nixon
the 37th president of the United States who was the only president to resign from office

Gerald Ford
became Vice President under Richard Nixon after Spiro Agnew resigned; became president after Nixon resigned; only president to serve as both Vice President and President without being elected by the Electoral College; criticized for pardoning Nixon; served under a weak economy and wanted to “WIN” (Whip Inflation Now)

Jimmy Carter
created the Department of Energy; oversaw the signing of the Camp David Accords between Israel and Egypt; failed to recover hostages during the Iranian Hostage Crisis

Ronald Reagan
applied the theory of supply-side economics (if corporate taxes are reduced, those corporations will earn greater profits and then hire more employees, called voo-doo economics by Bush); lobbied Congress for a tax cut for all Americans; greatest success was with American-Soviet relations with Mikhail Gorbachev (“Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall”)

George Bush
campaign focused on “Read my lips: no new taxes”; criticized for eventually raising taxes as part of a budget agreement with Congress in 1990

Anwar Sadat
President of Egypt; assassinated by fundamentalist army officers in 1971

Jerry Falwell
evangelical fundamentalist Southern Baptist pastor, televangelist, and a conservative political commentator; cofounded the Moral Majority

Oliver North
a Marine Corps colonel and National Security Council Staff member who was involved in the clandestine sale of weapons to Iran in order to encourage release of hostages held in Lebanon (Iran-Contra scandal)

Boris Yeltsin
first president of Russia

Colin Powell
Secretary of State under George W. Bush; first African-American secretary of state

Lech Walesa
he co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc’s first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland

Bob Dole
Gerald Ford’s running mate in 1976 and the Republican nominee in 1996 against President Bill Clinton

Bill Clinton
established NAFTA, also impeached for perjury during the Lewinsky scandal

Nelson Mandela
spent 27 years in prison for “sabotage and conspiracy to overthrow the government” in South Africa, and upon his release, he began negotiations with President F.W. de Klerk which led to the removal of apartheid; then elected President of South Africa in 1990

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