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History of Civ 2 Final

All except which of the following developments occurred at the Yalta conference held in 1945?
The leaders of the three Allied nations were deeply divided over the future of Japan

The Truman Doctrine…
Stated that the United States would provide aid for any nation that was being threatened by communist subversion

The European Recovery Program was better known as the…
Marshall Plan

What foreign policy strategy did George Kennan advocate in a 1947 Foreign Affairs article?
Containment

Events causing Stalin to become uneasy about United States intentions between 1945 and 1950 included…
Plans to merge the American, British and French occupation zones in Germany into a West German republic

The Korean War…
Was fought by a United States force composed mainly of South Korean and United States troops against North Korean forces and, after late 1950, Chinese “volunteers”

Ho Chi Minh…
Led a multiparty coalition in an anti-colonialist struggle against the French in the 1940s and the early 1950s

The crossing of what latitudinal parallel boundary and what boundary river were central to the outbreak and prolongation of the Korean War?
The 38th parallel and the Yalu River

The Cuban Missile Crisis…
Brought the world to the brink of nuclear war, but, eventually, produced a lessening of Cold War tension between the superpowers

In the Cuban Missile Crisis…
The Soviet Union decided to send nuclear weapons to Cuba in 1962

China’s long isolation from the West began to end with the opening to America that was accomplished by…
Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger

Warfare resumed in Vietnam in 1959 because…
The United States, fearful of a communist victory in the elections agreed to at Geneva, had ignored the Geneva Accords and aided the south Vietnamese government

The concept or policy of “equivalence” referred to…
Maintaining a rough military parity on the part of the superpowers to avoid a catastrophic nuclear confrontation

The 1975 accord that recognized all central and eastern European borders that had been established since the end of WWI, and committed the signers to the human rights of its citizens, was the…
Helsinki Agreement

At the close of WWII, the Soviet Union…
Was in short supply of housing, and continued to be

Characteristic of Stalin’s domestic policies after WWII was…
An emphasis on the growth of heavy industry

Joseph Stalin…
Continued his reliance on the terror apparatus, including the holding of about 9 million Soviet citizens in Siberian concentration camps

The Soviet economy…
Grew rapidly in the heavy industry sector during the late 1940s and the early 1950s

After assuming control of the Soviet Union, Nikita Khrushchev’s policies…
Were characterized by a program of de-Stalinization and broader intellectual tolerance

Nikita Khrushchev…
Was mocked as “Cornman” by many Russians

Which of the following occurred when Nikita Khrushchev was in power?
The Twentieth National Congress speech

Which of the following was not characteristic of Soviet society during the Brezhnev years?
A willingness to print the actual truth in Pravda and real news in Investia, unlike under Stalin

Leonid Brezhnev…
Valued stability above all, and blocked any significant attempts to deal with economic or social problems

During the late 1960s and the 1970s…
The problems of economic stagnation and political and administrative gerontocracy were effectively ignored under Brezhnev

In the early 1970s…
Stalin’s reputation rose somewhat under Brezhnev’s rule

Which of the following statements is not true of the Brezhnev years in the Soviet Union?
As a result of detente, there was a freer and more relaxed domestic atmosphere

Whic of the following is not an example of the problem of the aging leadership in the Soviet union in the 1980s?
Mikhail Gorbachev

Mikhail Gorbachev…
Had moved up rapidly since his appointment to the Party Central Committee in 1978

A factor that was not an element of Mikhail Gorbachev’s policies was that…
He wanted to establish an entirely free-market capitalist economy

As an instrument of perestroika, glasnost allowed…
Criticism of the government and soviet society in general

Major problems facing the Soviet system, in the view of Gorbachev, included…
The unexpected reappearance of collective patriotism among the ninety-two ethnic groups in the Soviet Union

The number of Soviet citizens who lost their lives in WWII is estimated at…
30 million

The ethnic tensions that resulted as an unanticipated by-product of glasnost were caused by…
The relaxation of Gorbachev’s iron grip on the Soviet system

Which nation’s Supreme Council unilaterally declared its independence from the Soviet Union on March 11, 1990?
Lithuania

One of the most significant reforms instituted by Gorbachev was to…
Legalize the formation of other political parties other than just the Communist party

Which of the following is not true about the events that occurred in the Soviet Union in December 1991?
The Congress of People’s Deputies denied Yeltsin the temporary power to rule by decree

The leader of Poland’s Solidarity movement was…
Lech Walesa

All of the following are true about events in Poland from 1980 to 1991 except…
Soviet troops occupied the country in December 1990

In its struggle to free itself from Communist rule, and reestablish an independent political structure, Czechoslovakia experienced…
The crushing reform by Soviet troops in 1968

In East Germany…
The fall of Communism resulted in political reunification with West Germany in 1990

A leading Soviet writer of the 1950s and winner of the Nobel Prize was…
Boris Pasternak

Mao Zedong’s New Democracy..
Moved slowly, at first, in order not to alienate the peasants

The initial program of land collectivization in communist China was…
Done in much less confrontational manner than Stalin used in the Soviet Union

The Great Leap Forward…
Created huge rural communes, but which failed economically

All of the following are correct about Mao’s Red Guards except…
They received re-enforcements from Taiwan

Mao’s Little Red Book…
Superseded all other learning sources during the Cultural Revolution

The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution…
Enabled Mao to regain control of the party after the disastrous Great Leap Forward

As a result of the excesses of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution’s Red Guards, all of the following occurred except…
Mao and all his deeds disappeared from Chinese history books

Under the new program of the “four modernizations” that began after Deng’s political rehabilitation…
Limited private capitalism was permitted to return to China

The “fifth modernization” referred to in post-Mao China was…
Democracy

In responding to recent social and politcal challenges, the Chinese Communist Party has, as an antidote, the philosophy of…
Confucius

In May, 1989, the Chinese Communist rulers suppressed the “fifth modernization” by their action at…
Tiananmen Square

The new policies advanced by Deng…
Roughly doubled China’s per capita income during the 1980s

“Black cat, white cat, what does it matter so long as it catches the mice?” was said by…
Deng Xiaoping

Which of the following is part of China’s new educational policies?
Foreign models, and the knowledge gained abroad, are now practiced

Under the Chinese policy called the “rural responsibility system”…
Peasant families paid a quota in the form of rent to the collective

Chinese “communes” were…
Agricultural communities containing more than 30,000 people

Areas in China where national minorities have exhibited unrest are…
Tibet and Xinjiang

All of the following were results of European colonialism in Africa except…
The spread of Islam

All of the following are correct about early African nationalist activities except…
Most of the anti-colonial nationalists were committed to violence

The following are true of the African National Congress except…
Its policies met with cooperative reactions from the white majority who held power

In 1993, President de Klerk agreed with Nelson Mandela to implement…
Democratic national elections

The formal establishment of the new state of Israel in May, 1948…
Resulted in Arab denial of Israel’s recognition

The hopes for lasting Middle East peace after Camp David were never realized, in part because of…
Israeli’s policy of establishing settlements in the occupied West Bank territories

All of the following contribute to turbulence and unrest in the Middle East except…
The desire by a majority of people to separate religion from political and social society

Define uhuru
Swahili for “freedom”

Define neocolonialism
Western domination was maintained by economic rather than political and military means

Define apartheid
Racial segregation

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